ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY: A COMPARISM OF RIPE AND UNRIPE EXTRACTS OF TWO VARIETIES (RED AND YELLOW) OF CASHEW APPLE (ANACARDIUM OCCIDENTALE) ON SOME CLINICAL BACTERIAL ISOLATES

ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY: A COMPARISM OF RIPE AND UNRIPE EXTRACTS OF TWO VARIETIES (RED AND YELLOW) OF CASHEW APPLE (ANACARDIUM OCCIDENTALE) ON SOME CLINICAL BACTERIAL ISOLATES


SIMEON CHUKWUEMEKA ENEMUOR1,*, CHIOMA OBIANUJU NWANKWO1, CHRISTIAN KELECHI EZEH1

  1.  Biocatalysis and Environmeental Research Group, Department of Microbiology, University of Nigeria, Nsukka

Afr. J Pharm Res Dev; Volume 15(2): 7-15; 2023

ABSTRACT

The emergence of pathogenic bacteria that are resistant to several antibiotics has recently presented a significant challenge to the healthcare system. Therefore, an alternative source of antimicrobial agents is needed. The study aimed to compare the antibacterial activities of aqueous and ethanol extracts of ripe and unripe fruits of red and yellow varieties of Anacardium occidentale against Escherichia coliKlebsiella pneumonia, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus. Cold maceration method of extraction was used using water and ethanol. Antibacterial activities of the extracts against the isolates were evaluated by agar diffusion method while minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined using broth dilution method. In the determination of the antibacterial activities of all the extracts, the highest zones of inhibition were shown by ethanolic extracts of both ripe red cashew (25 mm) and yellow cashew (26 mm) against Escherichia coli. Both the aqueous and ethanolic extracts of unripe red and yellow cashew had no antibacterial effect against Klebsiella pneumoniae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. As well, both aqueous and ethanol extracts of ripe red and yellow cashew and ethanolic extract of ripe yellow cashew inhibited all the test organisms. Minimum inhibitory concentration ranged from 50 to 150 mg/ml. At 100 mg/ml, both ethanolic extracts of ripe red and yellow cashew were bactericidal to Escherichia coli while aqueous extract of ripe red cashew was bactericidal to Escherichia coli at 150 mg/ml. The antibacterial activities of A. occidentale apple (fruit) extracts underscore the credence to the efficacy of their use as traditional remedy against some human ailments.

 Email of correspondence: simeon.enemuor@unn.edu.ng;

Keywords:Antibacterial activity, Anacardium occidentale,Ethanol extract of Anacardium occidentale, Aqueous extract of Anacardiumoccidentale, Red and yellow false fruits varieties

https://doi.org/10.59493/ajopred/2023.3.2                      ISSN: 0794-800X (print); 1596-2431 (online)

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