ANTIMALARIAL ACTIVITY OF CLERODENDRUM CAPITATUM (WILLD) ETHANOL LEAF EXTRACT IN PLASMODIUM BERGHEI INFECTED MICE
OLORUKOOBA AMINA BUSOLA1,*, IWUJI GODIAN IWUJI1, HAMZA ASMAU NASIR2 AND ADAMU ABDULRAHMAN3
1.Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria.
2.Department of Pharmaceutical and Medicinal Chemistry, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria.
3.Department of Pharmacognosy and Drug Development, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria.
Afr. J Pharm Res Dev; Volume 12(2): 248-256 ; 2020
Malaria is a major global health problem that continues to affect a large number of people yearly especially those in developing countries including Nigeria. Medicinal plants still remain a vital source for the discovery and development of new antimalarial drugs. The plant Clerodendrum capitatum (Family – Verbenaceae), is a fast growing, erect, well branched, perennial under shrub which is traditionally used for the treatment of a plethora of diseases including cold, hyperpyrexia, malaria, asthma, diabetes mellitus, hypertension and inflammation. The aim of the study was to evaluate the antimalarial activity of the ethanol leaf extract of the plant. Phytochemical screening and acute toxicity studies were conducted using standard protocols. Antimalarial activity was investigated using suppressive, curative and prophylactic models in mice infected with Plasmodium berghei. Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of carbohydrates, alkaloids, flavonoids, cardiac glycosides, tannins, terpenes and saponins. The oral median lethal dose of the extract in mice was estimated to be greater than 5000 mg/kg. In the suppressive and curative tests, a significant (p<0.05) dose dependent decrease in parasitemia levels occurred at all tested doses compared to the standard drug (Artesunate, 5 mg/kg). However, in the prophylactic test, significant (p<0.05) reduction in parasitemia level occurred only at the 200 and 400 mg/kg doses. Oral administration of the extract at 100 and 200 mg/kg doses prolonged the mean survival time of treated mice compared to the distilled water treated group. The findings from this study suggest that the ethanol leaf extract of Clerodendrum capitatum possesses antimalarial activity.
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KEYWORDS: Antimalarial activity, Clerodendrum capitatum, Curative, Prophylactic, Suppressive.