ANTIMICROBIAL SUSCEPTIBILITY PATTERN OF BACTERIAL CONTAMINANTS FROM AUTOMATED TELLER MACHINES IN KADUNA
OBAJULUWA AYOKUNNUMI FUNKE* , YATAI PATIENCE AND PAROM STEPHEN
Department Pharmaceutical Microbiology and Biotechnology, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kaduna State University, Kaduna, Nigeria.
Afr. J Pharm Res Dev; Volume 11(2): 156-164 ; 2019
Hand contact is a major means of spreading infectious diseases. Automated teller machines are widely used in our society today by all and sundry through direct hand contact. There is great possibility of spreading drugresistant bacteria strains unconsciously through the use of the machines. This study was aimed at isolating bacterial contaminants from some automated teller machines in Kaduna and determining their multidrug resistance pattern. Fifty automated teller machines (ATMs) were randomly selected from Ahmadu Bello Way, Kaduna. Using swab sticks, one sample was taken from the keypads of each ATM and transferred into nutrient broth and incubated overnight. Identification of bacteria isolates was done using microscopic and biochemical tests. The antibiotic sensitivity tests were carried out using the modified Kirby Bauer disc diffusion method. The total viable bacteria count from the ATMs was 1.6 x 103 – 6.6 x 106cfu/ml. The following bacteria were isolated Staphylococcus aureus 19 (38%), Escherichia coli 15 (30%), Klebsiella species 7 (14%), Bacillus subtilis 6(12%) and Proteus vulgaris 3(6%). The antibiotics susceptibility test of the isolated organisms showed that ciprofloxacin was the most active antibiotic while the beta lactams were least active, different pattern of multidrug resistance was observed. The Multiple antibiotics resistance index (MARI) showed that 98% of isolates from ATMs had MARI greater than 0.2 indicating that the isolates originated from high risk source of contamination where antibiotics are often used. The findings of this study showed that the ATMs sampled were highly contaminated with bacteria which were resistant to commonly used antibiotics.
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KEYWORDS: Automated teller machines; Antibiotics; Resistance; Bacteria.