Influence of Cocoa Butter and Coconut Oil Lubricants on Quality Parameters of Effervescent Diclofenac Tablet Formulation


Adedokun MO*, Olorunsola EO, Nse IA

Department of Pharmaceutics and Pharmaceutical Technology, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Uyo, Uyo, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria

Afr. J Pharm Res Dev; Volume 8(2): 159-167 ; Nov/Dec 2016


Lubrication of effervescent tablet formulations with popular lubricants prior to compression, in many cases, is often accompanied with such challenges as incompatibilities and high cost. Hence, the rising need to search for more effective, more compatible and cheaper natural lubricants for this delivery system to promote patient therapeutic benefits. This work is thus designed to examine the properties of cocoa butter and coconut oil as alternative lubricants in comparison with polyethylene glycol (PEG) at different concentrations in effervescent Diclofenac tablet formulation. Cocoa butter and coconut oil were extracted from the seeds of Theobroma cacao and the meat of matured fruits of Cocos nucifera, respectively. The physical mixtures of the tablet formulations containing either cocoa butter, coconut oil or polyethylene glycol as lubricants at varying concentrations (0- 4%) were assessed for their density and fluidity properties using angle of repose, Carr’s index, Hausner’s ratio, bulk and tapped densities as assessment parameters. Direct compression method was used to prepare the tablets at a compression load of 4.5 KgF. The quality parameters of the effervescent tablets – tablet dimensions, weight variation, crushing strength, friability, disintegration and effervescence times – were also evaluated. The flow properties and other parameters were within the prescribed official specifications. Statistically, there was no significant difference between the values of tablet dimensions (p > 0.05).While the values of the tablet crushing strength decreased, friability (%), disintegration and effervescence times increased as the lubricant concentration increased for all the batches. Tablets formulated with cocoa butter and coconut oil lubricants at concentrations of 3 – 4 %w/w and 4 %w/w, respectively, exhibited good quality parameters, and, therefore, could serve as alternative lubricants in producing effervescent tablets with acceptable mechanical strength and short effervescence time.

KEYWORDS: Effervescent tablet, lubrication, cocoa butter, coconut oil, polyethylene glycol.

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