PHARMACOGNOSTIC STANDARDIZATION AND ANTIMICROBIAL EVALUATION OF BYRSOCARPUS COCCINEUS SCHUM. AND THONN. (CONNARACEAE)

PHARMACOGNOSTIC STANDARDIZATION AND ANTIMICROBIAL EVALUATION OF BYRSOCARPUS COCCINEUS SCHUM. AND THONN. (CONNARACEAE)


TOLULOPE KIKELOMO ODUNTAN1, TEMITAYO OLAYEMI AJAYI1,*, JONES OLANREWAJU MOODY1

1. Department of Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria.

Afr. J Pharm Res Dev; Volume 16(2): 35-50; 2024

ABSTRACT

The plant Byrsocarpus coccineus Schum and Thonn is used traditionally for treating bacterial and fungal illnesses. This study investigated the ethnobotanical use of B. coccineus, pharmacognostic standard procedures and the antimicrobial properties of the leaf. A semi-structured questionnaire was employed, following the Logit model. Microscopy, macroscopy, physical constants, phytochemical screening, thin layer chromatography and antimicrobial activities (using the agar diffusion and micro broth dilution assays on Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Multi resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumonia, Candida albicans and Tricophytum rubrum) were evaluated. The results showed that the ethnobotanical uses include treatment of typhoid, men impotency, gonorrhoea, dysentery, cancer and urinary problems (highest with 30%). Microscopy showed the presence of jigsaw-shaped epidermal cells with numerous anomocytic stomata. Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of carbohydrates, glycosides, alkaloids, saponins, tannins, flavonoids and terpenoids, but steroids were absent. Eight (8) spots were observed for the n-hexane and methanol extract development on TLC in a solvent mixture of n-hexane: ethyl acetate (4:1). All microorganisms were susceptible to n-hexane extract at all serial dilutions (12.5 -50 mg/mL), highest susceptibility to B. subtilis at the 16 mm inhibition zone with gentamicin (positive control) at 16 mm inhibition zone as well. Also found was the lowest minimum inhibitory activity (MIC) on P. aeruginosa (0.1953 mg/mL) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of 12.5 mg/mL, 6.25 mg/ml and 12.5 mg/mL against S. aureus, B. subtilis and E. coli, respectively, with gentamicin (positive control) having 5 µg/mL, 5 µg/mL and 10 µg/mL, in that order. The aqueous extract showed the highest susceptibility on S. aureus, E. coli and P. aeruginosa, the lowest MIC against B. subtilis (0.78125 mg/mL) and MBC against T. rubrum (12.5 mg/mL). The plant extract showed good antibacterial and antifungal activity and thus can be explored as a new antimicrobial agent or source for new drug discovery.

Corresponding author: tayomiajayi@gmail.com

Keywords: Byrsocarpus coccineus, Pharmacognostic, Antimicrobial, Ethnobotany, Herbal standardization

https://doi.org/10.59493/ajopred/2024.2.4    ISSN: 0794-800X (print); 1596-2431(online)

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