POTENTIATION OF ANTIMALARIAL ACTIVITY OF CHLOROQUINE BY CHLORPHENIRAMINE IN PLASMODIUM BERGHEI-INFECTED MICE
Uduma Eke Osonwa1*, Michael Umale Adikwu1, 2, Stanley Chijioke Eluu3, Linda Onyeka Anagu3, Charles Okechukwu Esimone3
- Department of Pharmaceutics and Pharmaceutical Technology, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Nigeria
- Department of Pharmaceutics, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Nigeria
- Department of Pharmaceutical Microbiology and Biotechnology, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Nigeria
Afr. J Pharm Res Dev; Volume 7(2): 77-86; Nov/Dec 2015
The resistance of malaria parasite to the cheapest and most available antimalarial, chloroquine, has limited its use. In this study, chlorpheniramine was combined with chloroquine in order to enhance the susceptibility of plasmodium to chloroquine. Using Swiss albino mice, in vivo antimalarial curative activity was determined with chloroquine (14 mg/kg for the first two days, and 7 mg/kg on the third day) alone or in combination with chlorpheniramine, (0.057 or 0.029 mg/kg). The effect of such combination on the haematopoetic and hepatic systems were also evaluated. The parasite reduction by the combination of chloroquine and 0.057 mg/kg chlorpheniramine was significantly greater (94.5%) than chloroquine given alone (43.9%) at P<0.05. This combination was safe on the haematopoetic system. There were indications of deleterious effect on the liver when Chloroquine or chlorpheniramine was used alone, whereas the combination showed safety. In conclusion, chloroquine and chlorpheniramine combination showed high synergy of antimalarial activity which is dose-dependent; this combination can be a cost effective, clinically efficacious alternative to ACT’s.
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