SUB-ACUTE TOXICITY STUDY OF ETHANOL LEAF EXTRACT OF Ocimum canum ON THE KIDNEY OF WISTAR RATS
JOSEPH OS*1, BUILDERS M1, JOSEPH OT2, SABASTINE AZ3, MUSA TL4, OYEPATA PJ2,
- Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Bingham University, Nasarawa, Nigeria.
- Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, University of Port Harcort, Rivers State, Nigeria
- Department of Pharmacology & therapeutics, Faculty of Pharmacy, Gombe State University, Nigeria.
- Department of Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Gombe State University, Gombe State, Nigeria.
Afr. J Pharm Res Dev; Volume 11(1): 001-007 ; 2019
The use of plant in treatment of human diseases is as old as man. Medicinal plants are often consumed locally without a graded dose or expected duration of use. This can precipitate unexpected side effects on the tissue, organ or body system. Ocimum canum is a plant regularly consumed in many part of Sub-Sahara Africa in management of various conditions such as infection, pain and diarrhea. The aim of this study is to study sub-acute toxicity effect of the ethanol plant extract on the liver. Animals of either sex were selected. Group 1 received distilled water (10 ml/kg), while group 2, 3 and 4 received Ocimum canum 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg respectively. Animals were kept in standard cages and given access to the extract, water and food orally for 28 days, after which they were weighed and sacrificed. Blood was collected by cardiac puncture and taken immediately for hematological and chemo pathological analysis. The histological nephrotoxic potential of the plant was studied using haematotoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining technique. There was Significant (P<0.05) decrease in RBC, HGB, MCV, while there was no change in the level of neutrophiles, basophiles, eosinophiles and platelets. Ocimum canum, significantly (p<0.05) increased Na level at 200 mg/kg and Creatinine level at 100 mg/kg dose levels respectively when compared to the control. Other parameters (K, CL and Urea levels) were not significantly affected. Histological study reveals slight tubular distortion. The result of the study showed that the plant could have slight effect on the kidney which suggests that the plant should be used with caution when taken for a sustained period.
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KEYWORDS: OCIMUM CANUM; KIDNEY; RATS; TOXICITY