THE INCIDENCE OF MULTIDRUG-RESISTANT STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS AMONG CLINICAL ISOLATES IN ZARIA METROPOLITAN AREA OF KADUNA STATE, NIGERIA

THE INCIDENCE OF MULTIDRUG-RESISTANT STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS AMONG CLINICAL ISOLATES IN ZARIA METROPOLITAN AREA OF KADUNA STATE, NIGERIA


SAMIRA GARBA1,*, IBRAHIM YAKUBU KOKARI ENEVENE1, OLAYINKA BUSAYO OLALEKAN1, MUHSIN FATHUDDIN MUHAMMED2, JOHN OBIDAH SOLOMON3, CHIBUEZE JAMES IGWE4, FUNKE AYOKUNNUMI OBAJULUWA4

1. Department of Pharmaceutical Microbiology and Biotechnology, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria
2. Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Life Sciences, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria
3. Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Life Sciences, Modibbo Adama University, Yola, Adamawa State
4. Department of Pharmaceutical Microbiology and Biotechnology, Kaduna State University, Kaduna, Nigeria.

Afr. J Pharm Res Dev; Volume 16(2): 19-34; 2024

ABSTRACT

Currently, antimicrobial resistance (AMR) poses a major threat to humanity, resulting in ineffective treatment. The study aimed to detect multidrug-resistant Staphylococcus aureus from two hospitals in the Zaria Metropolis of Kaduna State. Phenotypic analysis was conducted on 165 non-duplicate suspected coagulase-positive Staphylococcus species isolated from blood, urine, wound, and high vaginal swab in the hospitals. Identification was carried out based on microbiological standards, which comprised morphological analysis (Gram staining), biochemical tests (catalase, coagulase, Dnase, and Mannitol), and identification test kits. Antibiotic susceptibility testing was evaluated using broth microdilution and modified Kirby Bauer disc diffusion methods with at least one agent from eleven different classes of antibiotics. Molecular identification techniques, such as PCR, single gene 16 SrRNA sequencing, and phylogenetic analysis were employed to confirm the identity. S. aureus accounted for 21% of the isolates. Out of which, 67% were isolated from wounds. Among these, 73% were multi-drug resistant (MDR), out of which 27% were extended-drug resistant (XDR). Phenotypic evaluation revealed, 73% methicillin resistance Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), 33% vancomycin resistance Staphylococcus aureus (VRSA) and 27% were both MRSA and VRSA. The isolates exhibited a high level of resistance to doxycycline (87%), cefoxitin (73%), and sulphamethoxazole/trimethoprim (67%). The PCR analysis revealed that the MDR isolates harbored the identifying genes (16 SrRNA 100% and nuc 88%), antibiotic resistance genes (mecA 50% and vanA 50%), and a virulent gene (luk F/Spvl 50%). A significant occurrence of multidrug-resistant S. aureus was observed, suggesting that the current treatment for S. aureus infections in the region is not effective which is a public health concern.

Corresponding author: mira0668@gmail.com

Keywords: Clinical isolates, Multidrug resistance, Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Vancomycin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Virulence

https://doi.org/10.59493/ajopred/2024.2.3    ISSN: 0794-800X (print); 1596-2431(online)

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